Stone Countertop Finishing – The Ultimate Guide
Stone countertop encompass a variety of materials, including granite, marble, quartz, nanoglass, sintered stone, and engineered marble, widely used in kitchens and bathrooms of different design styles. In this article, we will delve into a comprehensive guide on the processing of stone countertops, discussing material selection, processing tools, and the characteristics of different stone countertop and vanity top.
Types of materials for stone countertops
The main types of materials for stone countertops include granite, marble, quartz, synthetic marble, nano crystallized glass, and sintered stone. Granite and quartz countertop currently lead in production quantity and application scope. However, granite and marble countertops are gradually facing competition from artificial stone countertops.
1. Processing Process for Granite and Marble Countertop Panels
First, let’s talk about the natural stone slab making process in detail.
1.1 Selecting Raw Materials:
Choose suitable raw materials, carefully selecting them based on customer samples or production order requirements. It is preferable to polish and compare the raw materials, observing patterns, colors, and particle consistency. Ensure the selection of raw materials or large slabs with similar colors, patterns, particles, and close density. Defects such as cracks, stone pits, or color lines are not allowed. Pay attention to the thickness and size of large slabs.
Granite & Marble Slab warehouse
1.2 Producing Rough Slabs from Raw Materials:
Use a disc saw or sand saw to cut the raw materials into rough slabs. After cutting, conduct a preliminary inspection. Qualified rough slabs are kept, and unqualified ones are discarded. If purchasing large slabs, this step can be skipped.
To smoothly cut the blocks into rough slabs, a giant saw similar to a bread slicer is used.
These saws are called gang saws and have extraordinary strength.
Use water next to the saw to prevent sparks and overheating of the blade.
1.3 Coarse Grinding and Fine Grinding:
Coarse Grinding: For products qualified in previous steps and rough slabs with a specified thickness, use a grinder for coarse grinding. Handheld grinders and multi-head continuous grinding and polishing machines are commonly used. After coarse grinding, inspect the slab surface after drying. If the surface is satisfactory, proceed directly to fine grinding. If the surface quality is not ideal, apply a resin adhesive to repair small holes, cracks, or claw marks.
Brush glue on stone slabs
Resin Adhesive Application: When the weather is good, the resin generally dries in about half an hour. If the weather is unfavorable, it may take 1-2 hours to dry. It is best to wait until it is dry before proceeding to fine grinding. Some factories skip the coarse grinding step, wash and inspect the rough slabs, and then apply adhesive directly to the problematic rough slabs. Generally, less resin is applied to granite, while more is applied to marble.
1.4. Fine Grinding:
Use a grinder to process qualified rough slabs or repaired rough slabs into honed slabs. Pay attention to defects that cannot be repaired, such as cracks, light colors, stone pits, or uneven patterns. Mark them with a red wax pencil for the next process to detect promptly. The glossiness required by European and American standards is above 90°, and the limit tolerance for the flatness of honed slabs is 0.8mm.
Other materials, such as quartz, sintered stone, nano crystallized glass stone, and synthetic marble, are factory-polished slabs and do not require the slab processing steps. Now that we have covered the material processing for countertops, let’s delve into the detailed processing steps for stone countertop slabs.
Stone Countertop Processing Procedures
Here, the term “stone countertop” includes common countertop source materials such as granite, marble, quartz, nanoglass, and sintered stone.
Handling is the initial step in the entire processing workflow. Transport carefully selected stone raw materials or large slabs to the processing area, ensuring that collisions and damage are avoided during handling. Proper handling plays a crucial role in the smooth progression of subsequent processes.
1.1 Ultimate Guide and Considerations for Slab Storage and Handling:
In the early stages of stone countertop processing, proper storage and handling are crucial steps to ensure the entire processing process runs smoothly. Here are some recommendations regarding storage and handling:
1.1.1 Slab Storage:
For engineered marble and quartz, indoor storage is a must to avoid direct sunlight exposure. UV rays accelerate the aging process of epoxy resin binders.
1.1.2 Use of Storage Racks:
Utilize two A-frame storage racks spaced 1.5 meters apart, with wooden strips at the bottom. Place slabs flat against the side panels of the rack, ensuring that each slab’s tight side does not exceed 25 slabs.
1.1.3 Avoid Vertical Placement:
To prevent warping, deformation, and cracking of countertops, refrain from vertically placing finished products.
1.2 Manual Handling Techniques:
1.2.1 Side Lifting of Panels:
In manual handling during processing and installation, adopt the side-lifting method. Two people lift the panel to the front of the machine or workbench, then simultaneously and evenly flip it to lay flat on the machine or workbench.
1.2.2 When the back is facing down, slowly drag the panel to adjust its position
It is strictly prohibited to drag the panel when the front is facing down to prevent surface scratches. The same principles apply to on-site installation handling, with 3-4 people collaborating when necessary.
1.3 Loading Techniques:
1.3.1 Loading Large Slabs:
When loading large slabs, use three triangular iron brackets (wooden brackets), spaced 90 cm apart, with wooden strips at the bottom, matching the width of the truck bed to prevent sliding. Place the large slab against the brackets, on both sides, ensuring that each slab is face to face and back to back, tightly aligned.
1.3.2 Loading Finished Products:
When loading finished products, use a pair of triangular wooden brackets that must be securely attached to the bottom of the truck to prevent sliding. Place finished products against the wooden brackets on both sides, then use flexible straps (wide bands) to secure them to the brackets, preventing sliding during transportation.
These recommendations not only contribute to safeguarding the integrity of stone slabs but also enhance the safety and efficiency of operations. Meticulous handling during storage lays a solid foundation for subsequent processing tasks.
2 To cut the large stone slabs into countertop panels
In the process of crafting stone countertops, cutting is a pivotal step that determines the final product’s dimensions and shape. Here is a further professional supplement to the cutting stage:
2.1 Cutting Techniques for Countertop panels
During the cutting process, the use of cooling water is crucial. It helps reduce friction temperature, extending the lifespan of cutting tools, and effectively minimizing cracks and deformations caused by high temperatures in the stone.
2.2 Preparations and Blueprint Reading Before Cutting
Before cutting slabs, meticulous blueprint reading is essential. To ensure accuracy in dimensions, understanding the countertop size specifications beforehand is crucial. This minimizes material wastage and meets the blueprint requirements. Accuracy in geometric dimensions, angle dimensions, and diagonal dimensions is paramount for the cut finished product.
2.3 Inspection and Preparation Before Cutting Large Slabs
2.3.1 Cutting Granite and Marble Countertops
When cutting granite and marble countertops, special attention is needed for cracks, black spots, color lines, color patches, and veining, in addition to avoiding surface-marked defects. Using an infrared bridge cutting machine for these natural materials helps maintain slab integrity and aesthetics.
2.3.2 Edge Cutting for Quartz, Engineered Marble, Nanoglass, and sintered stone Countertops
For engineered products, selecting premium slabs can reduce issues like color variations and cracks. However, a careful check for batch color variations is necessary before cutting large slabs. Attention should be given to potential minor color differences between batches during inspection to avoid discovering issues after completion and ensuring overall quality.
2.4 Cutting Countertop Panels and Techniques
Adhering to the principle of achieving a material utilization rate of 90%, ensuring a width of over 60mm for remaining materials is crucial. This principle not only aids in material conservation but also enhances production efficiency.
2.5 Avoiding Seams and Front Edge Treatment
Minimize seams on the backsplash, and the front edge can be adequately joined before polishing. This approach enhances aesthetics and improves the product’s texture.
2.6 Tool Selection for Cutting
Combining an infrared bridge cutting machine with a hand cutter provides flexibility for different cutting needs, improving operational convenience. The infrared bridge cutting machine is suitable for batch cutting, offering high efficiency, while a hand cutter provides flexibility for diverse cutting requirements.
2.7 Retention of Wall Expansion Joints
Ensuring a 3-5mm expansion joint on the wall helps address minor changes in the wall, preventing unnecessary stress on the countertop after installation.
2.8 Cutting Speed and Selection of Specialized Tools
Adjust the cutting speed based on different materials and use specialized tools such as quartz saw blades. For instance, the cutting speed for quartz should be below 4m/minute, and the speed should be reduced when cutting the head and tail to minimize material wastage. Always use specialized blades for cutting nano crystallized glass to avoid cutting difficulties.
2.9 Dimension Verification and Detailed Labeling
After cutting countertop slabs, cross-checking each slab’s dimensions against the blueprint is crucial. Clearly label segment positions, auxiliary materials, serial numbers, addresses, and joints to ensure smooth progression in subsequent processes.
With these professional recommendations, we can not only utilize materials more efficiently but also elevate the proficiency of cutting operations, ensuring the quality and precision of the final product.
3. Countertop Assembly
During the assembly phase of countertop fabrication, stringent quality inspection and professional procedures are crucial. This involves combining cut slabs according to design specifications to form a complete countertop. The assembly process must ensure the flatness of the slabs and the tightness of the joints to guarantee the quality of subsequent processing. Here is a detailed breakdown of the assembly process:
3.1 Quality Inspection of Previously Processed Countertop panels
Before assembly, conduct a quality inspection of the countertop slabs received from the previous stage. Reject any substandard products to ensure the final product’s quality.
3.2 Preparation Before Gluing Countertop Panels
Before gluing the countertop, carefully review the blueprint to understand the relationship between the countertop to be glued and the entire set of countertops. Gather the required glue, straight edges, and materials for the front edge.
3.3 Mixing Glue Colors
ssign a dedicated person to mix glue colors, ensuring the color closely matches the slab. Only after the team leader approves the color’s compatibility with the countertop can it be used.
3.4 Considerations When Using Fast-Drying Glue
When using fast-drying glue, follow the instructions regarding the ratio of glue to curing agent. Avoid adding excessive curing agent to prevent compromising the bond’s strength and color variations. Strictly control the amount of glue mixed each time to minimize waste.
3.5 Straight Edge Bonding
When bonding straight edges, ensure that the bonding surface is thoroughly clean, dry, and flat. Inspect the flatness of the back joint surface of the large slab and use an angle grinder for minor adjustments if necessary. Clean and dry the bonding surface, evenly apply same-color glue within 15mm of the bottom edge of the large slab. Use clamps and a rubber mallet to align the straight edge strip with the large slab, applying moderate pressure. Place clamps every 5-10 centimeters and remove excess glue after it partially dries. After straight edge bonding, use same-color glue to bond same-color quartz reinforcing material to strengthen the connection between the straight edge and the slab. Finally, use glass glue and clamps to securely bond the lining wood strip to the slab (flat placement).
Ensure that the bottom of all clamps is clamped beneath the wooden frame of the workbench and does not directly contact the polished surface. It is crucial to ensure absolute flatness at the bottom.
3.6 Front Edge Bonding
When bonding the front edge, first use fast-drying same-color glue to firmly bond the stone reinforcing material to the bottom of the slab. Once the glue is dry, evenly apply same-color glue to the back of the front edge. Use moderate force along with a rubber mallet to securely bond the front edge to the previously bonded reinforcing material, ensuring the smoothness of the protruding water retaining line and a seamless, tight connection. When the glue is semi-dry, use a small knife blade to remove excess glue. Finally, use glass glue and clamps to securely bond the lining wood strip to the slab (flat placement).
When using large clamps to tighten the front edge, elongate wood strips must be added on both sides of the slab, preventing the long clamp from directly contacting the two side surfaces of the slab. This step ensures the stability of the bond and overall texture.
Steps for Seamless Joining of Right-Angle Countertop Panels
In this section, we will use the example of seamlessly joining right-angle countertops to detail the gluing steps and considerations for countertop panels. This joining method has gained popularity in recent years, not only raising precision requirements for processing equipment but also enhancing the continuous and aesthetically pleasing appearance of the wood grain (as shown in the diagram).
1. Cutting 45-degree edges of the countertop panel
In practical applications, many countertops require right-angle configurations, necessitating a 45-degree cut of the countertop panels. The precision and flatness of the cut are crucial for the final product’s quality, ensuring a smooth cut and flawless aesthetic.
2. Pre- and Post-Joining Treatment
The key to seamless joining is forming a sharp angle with the glaze during the 45-degree chamfer and creating a corner with zero margin. As machine cutting is used in the chamfering process, some imperfections may occur. Therefore, after chamfering, manual secondary polishing is required to ensure the quality of the finished product.
3. Countertop Panel Gluing
Before gluing the countertop panels, the following steps are necessary:
– Clean the surface of the countertop panels and let them air-dry.
– Verify the dimensions and quality against the blueprint.
– Create a set of fixtures for positioning the countertop panels to ensure a straight and aesthetically pleasing finished product.
– Once the joining positions are determined, inject professional stone adhesive into the interface.
– Use fabric tape to pull and adhere the interface, enhancing the effect of seamless joining.
Allow 3-5 minutes for the glue to set. Before the glue is completely dry, preliminarily handle any excess glue.
4. Edge Processing Equipment
5. Countertop Surface Treatment
After the glue has dried for 20–30 minutes, use tools such as a sponge eraser, angle grinder, and sandpaper to polish away any excess glue. It is essential to note that the sponge eraser or angle grinder should be angled at forty-five degrees. Stop polishing if a brittle sound is heard, to prevent damaging the glazed surface. Finally, use a blade to scrape off any remaining excess glue and polish with a polishing disc not lower than 1000#.
6. Reinforcement and Waterproof Treatment
After completing the above four steps, proceed with reinforcement. Use specially designed edge strips or corner brackets on the back of the bonded interface to increase bonding strength and stability, preventing issues like detachment and cracking. For products in contact with water, such as bath basins and sinks, perform waterproof treatment. Use waterproof adhesive strips and structural adhesive to reinforce the joined interface, ensuring waterproofing.
7. Stain-Resistant Treatment
After completing the above five steps, apply a stain-resistant agent to the joined interface, enhancing its appearance. This step contributes to an overall improvement in the countertop’s aesthetics.
Countertop Edge Processing
This step involves processing the edges of the joined countertop panels, including trimming and shaping the corners. Edge processing equipment is used to ensure smooth and even edges that meet design requirements.
Types of Front Edge Profiles
Not all countertop edges are equal in quality or aesthetics. The best choice depends on your needs, so let’s explore the most common types.
Sharp Edge (45° Bevel)
A sharp edge is one of the most common edge profiles on countertops. It is created by cutting each end at a 45-degree angle and then smoothing it. This forms an attractive edge that appears to extend beyond its actual location, adding visual interest to your countertop without taking up too much space.
Square edges form a 90-degree angle at their corners, suitable for those seeking a simple design. A clean design can easily create pleasing, clean lines in any room. Square edges are also great for those who believe thicker edges leave more space on either side of the countertop.
The oval edge, similar to the French edge but more elongated, creates a smooth oval shape, bringing a unique artistic touch to the countertop. Oval edges are suitable for those seeking a distinctive, modern look.
The ogee bullnose combines the design of a bullnose (semi-circular) and an ogee edge, featuring smooth curves and unique decorative elements. This edge is ideal for those seeking a combination of classic and artistic elements in their countertop.
A straight edge suits any kitchen or bathroom style. Particularly fitting for a modern appearance, all four edges of a straight-edge countertop have square, hard 90-degree angles. It’s a popular design choice, providing a straight, flat surface. This edge profile is available in various materials, including marble, granite, nano-crystallized stone, and rock panels.
The ¼ Round Edge
The ¼ Round Edge is a simple profile that is perfect for kitchens and bathrooms. Its slight curve maximizes the visual thickness of the countertop. This edge is suitable for both traditional and contemporary designs.
¼ beveled edge
The ¼ beveled edge accentuates the thickness of your kitchen or bathroom countertop. This edge is a great option for those who want to add shape to their countertops but don’t want a rounded edge.
¼ beveled edge accentuates the thickness of your kitchen or bathroom countertop.
¼ beveled edge accentuates the thickness of your kitchen or bathroom countertop.
Beveled countertop edge
beveled edge accentuates the thickness of your kitchen or bathroom countertop.
This edge is a great option for those who want to add shape to their countertops but don’t want rounded edges.
Countertop with bullnose edge
The bullnose countertop edge is perfect for a traditional kitchen or bathroom. This edge is a timeless classic that gives your countertops a very smooth look by making them appear thinner.
Full bullnose edge profile the half-rounded edge is one of the most common countertop edges. It works well as a small radius edge on a flat surface that looks like half the size has been removed. Bullnose can vary greatly in design, from simple to elaborate, which makes it perfect for stone and tile countertops as well as granite. The depth of the rounded corners also affects the overall design; you can have thin (1/4) or thick (3/4) rounded corners.
Countertop with Ramped Edges
Ramped Edges: The elongated slope will protect water and other liquids from damaging the cabinets below. Beveled edges are a stylish choice for kitchen countertops.
Countertop With French Cove
French Cove is perfect for kitchen granite and marble countertops.
Countertop with French Cove
The French edge is a popular design that has rounded, gentle curves. This edge is suitable for those who want to add some romance and elegance to their kitchen or bathroom. Its profile resembles a continuous arc, presenting a sophisticated look.
Small beveled edge and rounded bottom
Provides the look of an extended edge without taking up more space. The rounded bottom edge throughout is great for both kitchen countertops and bathroom vanities
The rounded bottom edge throughout is great for both kitchen countertops and bathroom vanities
Countertop with semi-curved edge shape
The semi-curved edge shape is a simple but stylish look for any countertop. The small crescent curve provides a unique visual sensation.
Waterfall shaped millwork molding features multiple rounded edges
The waterfall shaped millwork molding features multiple rounded edges. The waterfall edge will provide a thick and elegant look to the countertop, perfect for a luxury kitchen. However, you need to clean your countertops daily to avoid dust buildup in the creases.
Countertop with double bullnose edge combines two rounded
Countertop with double bullnose edge combines two rounded
The double bullnose edge combines two rounded, rounded edges to create a look reminiscent of running water. With this design make sure your cabinets stay dry and the countertops will look fantastic.
Whichever edge type you choose, granite, marble, quartz, nanoglass stone, and synthetic marble can be used to make countertop edges in a variety of shapes and sizes. Sintered stone are thinner and the material itself is brittle and cannot do complex countertop edge work. Generally it is used straight edge paste thickened or 45 degrees seamless splicing, which can make the plate grain extension, the visual effect is superb.
Which countertop edge is best?
The most practical is the semicircle. Right-angled edges and 45-degree seamless splicing are popular. But that’s only half the story. You have to see for yourself and decide what’s best for you. Jaddas Stone is happy to assist you as we do all types of countertop edges for you to review and confirm.
Countertop Edge Finishing Precautions
1. Straight edges such as back walls, beveled edges, and leading edges are first shaped to the desired shape by an edge grinder during fabrication. If hand-ground edges are used, it must be ensured that their linear deviation is within 0.5 mm, in strict compliance with the production requirements of the relevant standards and regulations.
2. During the process of water sanding, the inherent shape of the board edge should be maintained. Water grinding is mainly used for polishing, and should not change its original shape.>
3. During the edge grinding process, use 50, 100, 150, 300, 500, 800, 1000, 2000, and 3000# water sanding blades to ensure that each pass of water sanding is completely polished in place. A standard edge grinding sequence can be used, such as 6 passes of water sanding at 50#, 150#, 500#, 1000#, 2000#, and 3000#. Water should be adequately supplied during each pass of water sanding, especially during fine sanding, to prevent overheating of the surface leading to burnout. The speed of the edge grinder should be maintained at 4000 r.p.m. or more.
4. When water grinding, make sure that the bottom of the countertop is straight and the height of multiple countertops should be the same to prevent uneven heights on both sides and in the center.
5. Fine sandpaper may be used for polishing and sanding of fine points where required. All edge grinding operations must be performed with cooling water to ensure stability and quality during the process. Polish nanoglass countertop surface.
Polishing and repairing of table tops
Repair is to repair the processing of inadvertent damage caused by (slight unevenness or lack of corners, etc.) or other natural defects, pay attention to the use and stone color close to the glue to repair.
Grinding is the entire countertop surface grinding process, the same grinding gloss requirements of more than 90 °, at the same time the surface into a mirror luster, no bump, no wave pattern, the intersection of straightness to maintain a straight line, countertops and vanitytop mouth of the gloss should be the same as the day surface consistency. Usually with a hand-held mill to grind, if the good effect is good, can be used to grind a large mill.
For is by more than one parts combination of countertops to put together repair and grinding, so as not to wait for the time when the test spell problems.
Countertop Hole Drilling
Drilling holes in the countertop is a crucial step in the entire manufacturing process, ensuring functionality and aesthetics, such as for sinks and faucets. This process requires careful and precise execution. Here are the steps involved:
Quality Inspection and Confirmation
Before any hole drilling operation, inspect the products from the previous step to ensure they meet quality requirements. Reject any substandard products. All operations must be confirmed by the team leader, ensuring stability and quality with the use of cooling water.
Read and Understand the Dimensions of the Countertop on the Drawing
Before drilling, carefully read the drawing dimensions, paying special attention to the relationship between centerlines and edges to avoid confusion and errors. Accurate understanding of drawing requirements is essential for hole drilling quality.
Hole drilling must be done on a wooden worktable with significant support; hanging operations are strictly prohibited to prevent cracks due to falling. Safety is a priority to ensure a stable and reliable working process.
Faucet and Gas Appliance Hole Operation
Use a cordless drill or impact drill with a diamond drill bit to securely fix a wooden template on the countertop. Slowly and steadily drill the hole along the wood template. This step applies to drilling holes for faucets and gas appliances.
Appliance Hole Drilling (Stove, Sink, Basin)
Leave a 3mm gap on all four sides during the hole drilling process for stoves, sinks, and basins to allow for accessory expansion gaps.
Drilling and Cutting
After marking the lines on the board, drill holes larger than φ3cm at the hole corners to prevent line extension and corner cracks. Then, use a hand-cutting machine to cut along the inside of the hole, preserving the largest possible round corner at the turning point.
Use Arc Stone Strips for Reinforcement:
Use arc stone strips to reinforce the corners of the hole, enhancing stability.
Use 25mm-wide Stone Strips for Reinforcement
Use 25mm-wide stone strips around the hole to further ensure robustness.
Three-Stage Sink Polishing:
All sinkholes, basin holes, and stove holes on the countertop must undergo three-stage polishing: 50#, 150#, and 500# grits to ensure smooth hole edges without cracks, ensuring the final hole quality.
Note: Diagrams for practical illustrations of sinkhole excavation and faucet hole drilling on the countertop are available.
Water Jet Cutting Machine
The water jet cutting machine employs a user-friendly microcomputer control system that allows for manual programming or PC-based programming. It automatically carries out processing tasks, making it convenient for cutting, edge grinding, grooving, kitchen countertop fabrication, and various custom shapes.
Water Jet Cutting Machine
Stone Countertop Hole Digging Illustrated Guide and Practical Operation Considerations
This hands-on guide to opening a sink hole applies to any stone countertop material, such as granite, marble, quartzite, microcrystalline stone, rock slab, and other materials.
Before starting the operation must be planned in the cutting position of the plate to ensure that the plate can better withstand the cutting pressure, please try to cut holes in the countertop plate against the middle of the position, as shown in the figure below:
Stone Countertop Hole Digging Illustrated Guide and Practical Operation Considerations
Countertop Panel Cutting
When starting to cut a panel you should make sure that the bottom of the panel is completely on a flat table and that the panel is flat and not tilted. It is also recommended that a rubber or wooden anvil be placed between the panel and the table to cushion the vibrations caused by the cut.
To ensure the best cutting results, it is recommended to use a saw blade that is 1.5mm thicker than the sheet. It is also recommended to cut off 3cm of width on each side of the panel in order to clean the edges of the panel and to reduce the tension generated during the cutting process (prioritize cutting the long side before cutting the short side), this step can also be used as the final size of the panel length and width shaping, please see the following picture:
As granite, quartz stone, nano microcrystalline stone, rock slabs are all a kind of high hardness and high density material, a large amount of water should be used to assist the cutting to fully cool the blade during cutting. Cooling water should be sprayed directly to the cutting point where the blade is in contact with the sheet, and it is recommended to keep the cutting speed 0.6m-0.75m/min for the first 30cm and the last 30cm to ensure the flatness of the cutting surface.
Countertop panel cut speed
The linear advance speed for 45° bevel cuts should be 0.5 m/minute
Countertop Panel Sink Hole Drilling
Before starting the operation, check that the bottom support is stable, level and has sufficient support on the cutting side. Likewise, the suction cups must be free of impurity dirt and distributed sufficiently evenly under the sheet, especially in the area to be cut.
Countertop Panel Sink Hole Drilling
A distance of at least 5 cm must always be left from the hole to the edge of the panel. The holes should have a rounded radius of at least 3 mm Countertop with the holes should have a rounded radius of at least 3 mm.
Indication of the margins of the openings in a countertop panel
The larger the radius of the rounded corners of the holes, the greater the structural capacity of that panel. Conversely, any inside corner of a hole without a fillet will create a stress point in the panel. At no time should an unrounded 90-degree right angle be cut. Schematic diagram of the opening angle of the countertop panel
Schematic diagram of the cut edge: Schematic diagram of the cut edge:
Sintered Stone Countertop Edge Finish: Jaddas Stone recommends rounding or beveling the edges of sintered stone countertops for a more impact-resistant, attractive and safe countertop.
According to design specifications, the corners of the countertop are cut to achieve a shape that aligns with the design requirements. Angle cutting requires precise measurements and operations to ensure the cut angles and shapes meet the design specifications.
Angle Cutting Procedure
Before any angle cutting operation, approval from the team leader is mandatory to ensure accuracy and quality. All angle cutting operations must utilize cooling water to lower temperatures and prevent overheating damage to the material. After marking the lines, to prevent line extension and corner cracking, drill holes with a diameter above φ3cm at the cutting angles. Use a hand cutting machine along the inner side of the hole, preserving the largest possible round corner at the turning point. The back wall can be used to conceal the operation, ensuring safety and discretion. After all angle cuts, three water grinding steps are required, including 50#, 150#, and 500#, to guarantee a smooth, crack-free finish.
Undermount Sink Processing
If your design includes an undermount sink, carry out the necessary processing to ensure its accurate installation and seamless integration with the countertop. After cutting the hole for the undermount sink, start by polishing its outline, then use strong color-matching adhesive to tightly bond the sink’s edge with the countertop. Pay attention to the direction of overflow and drainage during the process. Clean any excess glue on the surface, and finally, use adhesive to reinforce the leftover material (strip-shaped) firmly at the bottom to ensure the sink’s stability.
Flat-Top Countertop, Undermount Support Strip Processing
For designs requiring the installation of support strips for a flat-top countertop, follow the corresponding processing steps. This ensures stable support for the countertop and an enhanced user experience.
Inspect the products received from the previous process to ensure they meet requirements. Reject any substandard items.
Before working on attaching support strips or boards, carefully read the blueprints to have a clear understanding of where support strips or boards are needed.
Dimension Calculation and Processing
When attaching support strips or boards to the joining surface, ensure all dimension calculations are accurate. Use a push table for processing to avoid distortion caused by using a curved saw.
Before color-matching adhesion, clean the bottom of the countertop. Arrange the wooden support strips or boards in sequence, ensuring a tight bond with the countertop. Use fixtures for assistance; the fixture usage method can be referenced in the straight edge adhesion specifications. Remove excess residue when the color-matching adhesive is about to set.
Cleaning and Protection
Clean all stains on the countertop and, if necessary, polish with wax. After approval from quality inspection, apply a protective film to the countertop surface to prevent scratches and dust adhesion. Finally, place the product in the finished goods area for storage.
Countertop Factory Trial Assembly and Inspection
For composite countertops, besides ensuring smooth edges, a good feel, and flatness, a trial assembly inspection is necessary. Pay attention to the uniformity of colors between composite countertops, the fit of interfaces, and the accuracy of left-right assembly according to the blueprint. If the assembly effect is unsatisfactory or colors are inconsistent, prompt rework or replacement is necessary. When the opening of the sink is close to the edge, additional reinforcement with steel bars is required to ensure structural stability. After inspection, if the customer requires, protective treatments such as waterproofing can be applied.
Packaging and Transportation
After completing all countertop processing, meticulous packaging is essential to ensure it remains undamaged during transportation. The packaging needs to be sturdy and durable to prevent the stone from colliding and getting damaged during transit.
During the countertop packaging process, clever packaging is done based on customer requirements or the characteristics of the stone to ensure the product’s safety during transportation. Make sure dull surfaces face each other, and insert scratch-resistant films between glossy surfaces. For easily scratched stones like Shanxi Black with darker colors, film wrapping is applied to prevent scratches that might affect the appearance. Countertop panels should be placed vertically in packaging to ensure the stone receives vertical force and should not be placed horizontally. The best practice is to bundle all countertops together, keeping them secure and avoiding any looseness.
Packaging Handling for countertop panel
Individual Countertop Paper Box Packaging
Bulk Packaging of Countertop Panels
Protection Between Panels
To prevent accidental scratches, use 2cm foam boards to separate one panel from another, providing an additional protective layer.
Finished Product Installation Transportation
During the transportation of finished products, secure them firmly inside the vehicle using wooden frames or angle steel frames. Then, bundle the finished products onto the frames, ensuring stability during transit. This secure method minimizes vibrations and collisions during transportation, ensuring the products arrive at their destination intact.
On-site Installation Guide for Countertop Panels
The final step involves transporting the processed countertops to the site for construction and installation. Ensure compliance with relevant safety regulations during the installation process, maintaining the cleanliness and integrity of the countertops.
Essential Tools for On-Site Construction and Installation
1. Angle Grinder (with diamond grinding wheel)
2. Water Grinder (resin grinding wheel)
3. Cordless Drill
4. Screwdriver Bits and Diamond Drill Bits (φ35, φ25, φ15)
6. Utility Knife
7. Neutral Adhesive (transparent, white)
8. Matching Color Adhesive (transparent, white)
9. Hardener, Pigments
10. Triangle Glass Clamps
11. Electrical Outlets
12. Film and Adhesive Paper
On-Site Construction and Installation
Apply film and adhesive paper to protect installed appliances (range hood, dishwasher, oven, refrigerator) and other valuables, ensuring their safety.
Verify Site Levelness
Use a spirit level to check the levelness of the kitchen cabinet at the site, ensuring the base is perfectly level. Confirm the countertop dimensions match the site and make adjustments if necessary.
Ensure Edge Gaps
Maintain a 3.5mm gap between the countertop edge and the wall to accommodate adjustments during installation and thermal expansion/contraction. Fill the gap with adhesive (such as silicone) to ensure a secure bond.
Countertop Adjustment and Finishing
After placing the countertop and back wall, make local adjustments and finishes. Check for any gaps; minor ones can be resolved by adding adhesive at the bottom. If there are irregularities, stop installation and adjust the cabinet or modify the countertop.
Attach Back Wall
After moving the adjusted countertop, apply adhesive (such as silicone) on the side panel where the countertop meets the under-counter wooden strip and cabinet.
Large Surface Bonding
For L-shaped or oversized countertops during large surface bonding, use powerful glass clamps to hold two large surfaces together, compressing the gap. Apply colored adhesive to the dry joint to ensure a neat and uniform appearance. Remove excess adhesive after 10-15 minutes.
Back Wall Adhesion
Use adhesive (such as silicone) to bond the back wall, ensuring it rests on the cabinet surface. Wipe off any extruded adhesive after 10-15 minutes.
Clean Excess Adhesive
After 10-15 minutes, use water or a cleaner to wipe away excess adhesive.
Avoid on-site drilling as much as possible. If necessary, follow the company’s prescribed methods and ensure the integrity of the supporting base and rounded corners.
Surface Adhesive Cleanup
Use a blade to scrape off residual surface adhesive, ensuring thorough cleaning
Adhesive Selection and Mold Prevention
Common adhesives come in white, black, and transparent. For large surface joints requiring surface polishing (light-colored series), use “Quick-Dry” matching color adhesive (recommended brand: EPOXY). Adhesives (such as silicone) should have anti-mold and antibacterial properties to reduce the risk of discoloration.
In this comprehensive guide, we have provided detailed operational steps and precautions for various stages of stone countertop processing. Starting from the processing of the surface material, handling, cutting, edge profiling, sink cutouts, basin installation, to packaging, and transportation, each step has been thoroughly covered. The guide ensures a comprehensive understanding of the entire process, emphasizing precision and attention to detail. Whether it’s the intricacies of edge profiling or the critical steps in sink cutouts and basin installation, our guide offers valuable insights for a successful stone countertop production. This resource is designed to assist professionals in the industry, providing them with the knowledge and guidance needed to achieve high-quality results.
Elevate your spaces with precision-crafted countertops tailored to your unique vision. At JADDAS STONE, we offer professional stone processing services, leveraging advanced techniques and a commitment to quality. Transform your designs into reality with our expertise, where every detail matters. Choose JADDAS STONE for an unparalleled blend of craftsmanship and innovation in stone fabrication. Your vision, our expertise – creating timeless elegance.